英文版 奥运场地鸟巢简介

  这是鸟巢官网上的简介,看看合用不:LocatedatthesouthernpartoftheOlympicGreeninBeijing,theNationalStadiumisthemainstadiumofthe29thOlympiadin2008。  Occupyinganareaof21hectares,ithasafloorspaceof258,000squaremeters。Itsseatingcapacityamountsto91,000,including11,000temporaryseats。  ThevenuewillhosttheopeningandclosingceremoniesoftheBeijingOlympicGamesandParalympicGames,thetrackandfieldcompetitions,andthefootballfinals。  AftertheOlympics,thestadiumwillbecomealarge-scalesportsandentertainmentfacilityfortheresidentsofBeijing--anarchitecturallandmarkandOlympiclegacy。  ThemainbodyoftheNationalStadiumhasadesignlifeof100years。Itsfireresistancecapabilityisfirst-rate,anditcanwithstandaneight-magnitudeearthquake。  Thewater-resistancecapabilityofitsundergroundprojectisalsofirst-rate。ThemainbodyoftheNationalStadiumisacolossalsaddle-shapedellipticsteelstructureweighing42,000tons。  Itis333meterslongfromnorthtosouth,294meterswidefromeasttowest,and69meterstall。Themainbody'selementssupporteachotherandconvergeintoagridformation,justlikeabird'snestwithinterlockingbranchesandtwigs。  Beingaseven-storyshearwallsystem,thestadium'sstandhasaconcreteframework。Theupperpartofthestandandthestadium'ssteelstructureareseparatedfromeachother,butbotharebasedonajointfooting。  TheroofoftheNationalStadiumiscoveredbyadouble-layermembranestructure,withatransparentETFEmembranefixedontheupperpartoftheroofingstructureandatranslucentPTFEmembranefixedonitslowerpart。  APTFEacousticceilingisattachedtothesidewallsoftheinnerring。TheconstructionoftheNationalStadiumfollowedthePPPmode(PrivatePublicPartnership),anditisco-ownedbytheBeijingState-OwnedAssetsManagementCo。  Ltd(BSAM),whoshares58percentofthetotalassets,andtheChinaInternationalTrustandInvestment(CITIC)Consortium,whoholdstherestoftheassets。  ComposedofBSAMandCITIC,theNationalStadiumCo。isresponsibleforfinancing,construction,operationandmanagementoftheproject。  CITIChasapost-Gameslicensedoperationrightfor30years。TheNationalStadiumisacomplexstructure,posinggreatdifficultiesforitsdesignersandconstructors。  1。LargeandheavysteelpartsThefracturesurfaceofthelargesttrusscolumn--themajorload-bearingcomponentoftheroofstructure--measures25mx20m,withaheightof67m。  Themaximumweightofasinglecolumnis500tons。Themaintrussis12mtall。Themaximumspanbetweenandthroughthetwocolumnsamountsto145。  577112。788m,andthemaximumspanbetweenthetwotrussesstandsat102。39m。Eachtrusscolumnisofgreatbulkandweight,andsoarethemaintrusses。  2。ComplexnodaljointsBecausethestructuralelementsintheprojectarebox-typed,manyelementsintersectspatiallyamongthesteelparts。  Besides,thecomplexnatureofsecondarystructureshasresultedinthediversityofnodaljointsofthemainstructures,requiringaccurateandsophisticatedmanufacturingandinstallation。  3。TightscheduleInadditiontothehugeworkload,theallottedconstructionperiodisshort。HavingstartedonDecember24,2003,theprojectisexpectedtobecompletedbytheendof2007,withtheinaugurationtimescheduledforMarch2008。  Thereforemanyoperationshavetobeconductedonalimitedterrain,causingaverytensesituation。4。Thehoistingworkextendedacrossthewinterandspring,sotheworkershavehadtodefybothrainyandcoldconditionsinthewintertocontinuetheirwork。  Theworkershaveovercometremendousengineeringandtechnicalchallengesintheprocessofconstruction:1。  DifficultworkarrangementTheyneedtodoverydetailedresearchofoperationsandfollowmeticulousarrangementstocompletevariouskindsofworkwithinalimitedworkspace。  2。DifficulthoistingofsteelpartsTofacilitatetheassemblyofthesteelparts,theworkershavetouseapronepositiontoassemblethetrusscolumns,whichrequiresaturnoverprocessbeforetheyarehoisted。  Thechoiceofthehoistpointsandlughooksposegreatdifficultiesinthefaceofbulkyandcumbersomesteelparts,andthechangeofpullingstressfromthreedirectionsmustbetakenintoconsideration。  Theworkersneedtometiculouslyrectifyanglesandpositionsofthebox-typedsectionalpartstoensureaccurateabutmentduringthehoistingprocess。  3 DifficultstabilizingprocessTheyalsohavetofighttheheavywindloadandkeepthestabilityofthesteelpartsbyfollowingastrictworkingorderanduselateralstabilitymeasuresincludingtheuseofanchoringmethodandwind-holdingropes。  4。DifficultweldingTheweldersnotonlyfaceahugeworkvolume,butalsohavetoworkonboththethinsteelsheetsandthicksteelslabs,onhigh-strengthandcaststeelelements,andtakedownward,verticaloroverheadpositionswhilewelding。  Theyfacetemperaturechanges,steeldeformationandintensivelabor。Theyneedtoworkaboveground,inwinterrainandunderwindyconditions。  5。DifficultinstallationTheworkersfacedifficultiesinensuringaccurateinstallationasthesteelpartsandtherelatedgigsandfixturescanbedeformedeasilyundertheirowndeadweightandthechangeoftemperatures。  Theworkersmusttakepre-installationmeasurestorectifyandrelievetheerrorsthatmightoccurintheprocessofinstallation。  
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